BY RON KNISELY
FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY
WHAT ABOUT THE FLU SHOT
"According to Hugh Fudenberg, MD...world's leading immunogeneticist...if an individual has had five consecutive flu shots between 1970 and 1980.CHANCES OF GETTING ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE IS TEN TIMES HIGHER than if they had one, two or no shots....due to the mercury and aluminum....buildup in the brain"
(Fudenberg, in press, J. of Clinical Investigation)
"Avoiding flu shots is a no-brainer. Who would want ethylene glycol, phenol, formaldehyde, aluminum and mercury. Many physicians believe. flu vaccines are largely responsible for the increase in Alzheimer's"
Joseph Mercola, D.O. www.mercola.com/2003/jul/5/spray_vaccine.htm
Even Fluzone, the new flu vaccine for babies, reportedly contains chicken embryos, formaldehyde, Polyethylene Glycol (used to make antifreeze), and p-Isooctylphenyl Ether.
"Some Doctors Now Warning AGAINST Dangerous Flu Shots" "More physicians are...advising.against the routine use of...`flu shots'....one such physician...`I have friends who are at the top of the vaccine field; they report that these are called `sloppy vaccines'.made from outdated viruses which are ground up into purely random proteins and then injected..cross-react with the body's own tissues; flu shots have a low chance of preventing the flu [but may cause] chronic auto-immune disease'"
"Viral vaccines contain traces of leukemia virus, cancer producing viruses in the chicken from which these eggs are taken"
Dr. Eva Snead; www.whale.to/vaccines/snead1.html
Diseases associated w/the flu vaccine: (www.healthfree.com/paa0014.htm):
Guillain-Barre; paralysis; polyneuritis; polyradiculitis; polyradiculomyelitis; polyganglioradiculitis; paresthesia; neuralgia; sensory brachial plexus neuropathy (Parsonage-Turner syndrome); meningitis; encephalitis; MS; encephalomyelitic syndrome; shingles; ataxia; disorientation; trembling; aphasia; bronchitis; bronchopneumonia; incontinence; dysuria or paralysis of the bladder; impotence; ORL; vertigo; noises in the ears; impeded hearing; prooptosis edema of retina; diminished/blurred vision; diplopia; nystagmus; circulatory problems; allergic thrombocytopenia; collapse; chronic fatigue; anaphylactic reactions; hallucinations and death.
"Particularly important is the frequency of patients with serious side effects after the vaccine had been given for several years without any problem." www.healthfree.com/paa0014.htm
"Those with a weakened immune system (the young, ill, and the elderly) SHOULDN'T be getting the shots, because they're most likely to have serious adverse reactions" David G. Williams D.C.
For a list of journal articles on adverse reactions:
"Contra-Indications [to the flu vaccine] include.any impairment of the immune system...Allergies.hay fever...infections....auto-immune diseases...." Intl Vaccination Newsletter www.whale.to/vaccine/flu3.html; www.healthfree.com/paa0014.htm
Why I Don't Get the FluMist Vaccine either.
"Nerves in the nose are a direct pathway to the brain, and bypass the blood-brain barrier....`....an important mode of spread after aerosol exposure....Intranasal inoculation of flaviviruses [not the same as influenza] may result in lethal encephalitis, presumably by direct infection of olfactory neurons and spread through the olfactory tract to the brain, whereas peripheral inoculation of the same virus strains does not"
(Knipe, David M.  ed. _Fields Virology_. Lippincott. p. 1057)
"The virus is cultured on...eggs...the chicken genome itself may contain hidden retroviruses; and.animal DNA.is left in vaccines...not to mention other contamination possibilities"
Chris Gupta, www.newmediaexplorer.org/chris/2003/08/27/flumist_vaccine.htm
"The package insert.states `FluMist® recipients should avoid close contact with immunocompromised individuals for 21 days.'..(Will this make stores that administer the vaccines-like Walmart.risky places to shop.The viruses suspected to be the most likely cause for the flu this season were negligibly different from the strains used in last year's flu vaccine..[so] why is this year's vaccine even necessary?) may contain contaminant avian retroviruses.. [may] enter the brain" "FluMist has the potential for causing the worst, most severe flu epidemic seen in years"
Sherri J. Tenpenny, D.O. www.vaclib.org/email/flumist.htm
www.chetday.com/flumistvaccine.htm ; www.nmaseminars.com
"posters.in the hospital requesting anyone who had FluMist within the past 21 days to leave the premises immediately.. employees who take the shot are subject to 21 days mandatory suspension insurance companies are refusing to reimburse..The main reason is the common `side-effects', brain swelling" www.health.groups.yahoo.com/group/cancercure/message/23122
Study: Vaccine didn't protect against flu
Shots had 'no or low effectiveness' against virus
Updated: 4:08 p.m. ET Jan. 16, 2004
WASHINGTON - The influenza vaccine that many Americans clamored for this year was not very good at protecting people against influenza, colds and similar viruses, a preliminary report published Thursday shows.
The study is the first attempt to show whether the vaccine that many sought after a flu scare this autumn and winter actually worked.
The study of hospital workers in Colorado, a state that was hit early and hard by influenza, showed the vaccine had “no or low effectiveness against influenza-like illness,” the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said in its report.
Same rate of illness
Many experts did not expect the vaccine to work well, although the CDC had hoped it would at least prevent some of the worst illnesses caused by this year’s strain of influenza.
The vaccine is only meant to protect against true influenza. Without a test, it is often difficult to distinguish between influenza and other, similar viruses.
CDC spokesman Tom Skinner said that for this reason the report only shows part of the story.
“This is the first of a number of studies that we are going to do to try to answer the question, ’did this years’s vaccine offer protection against flu?’ This study in and of itself does not answer this question,” he said in a telephone interview.
However, the study shows that people who were vaccinated against influenza came down with colds, flu and similar viruses at the same rate as people who were not vaccinated. This would presumably include true influenza.
The vaccine is formulated each year in February or March, at the end of the northern hemisphere’s flu season, and did not include the Fujian strain of influenza, a new, mutated strain that turned out to be the predominant type of flu in the United States and several other countries this year.
The epidemic appears to be on the wane -- this past week only 2.8 percent of hospital visits were for influenza-like illnesses, compared to 5.5 percent the week before.
News coverage of the early start to the flu season sent many people rushing to get vaccinated. There were shortages in some places and the U.S. government bought 625,000 doses of flu vaccine from makers Chiron and Aventis.
It also negotiated a discount price for states to buy up to 3 million unsold doses of Wyeth and MedImmune’s FluMist vaccine, which is given nasally.
Experts knew the vaccines did not include the Fujian strain, but they did contain the related Panama strain, which they hoped would provide at least some protection.
The study, done among hospital workers at the Children’s Hospital in Denver, suggests it did not.
Of the 1,000 people vaccinated before Nov. 1, 149 developed influenza-like illness, or just under 15 percent. Of the 402 people who were not vaccinated, 68 got a flu-like illness, or just under 17 percent.
Copyright 2004 Reuters Limited. All rights reserved. Republication or redistribution of Reuters content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of Reuters.
When it comes to protecting yourself from the daily threat of viral and bacterial invaders, a strong, rapid and accurate immune response is critical
How important is Transfer Factor going to be in your future?
Transfer Factor is the safest and most effective weapon available with the ability to massively increase, your immune system's ability to quickly identify returning and new unidentified threatening antigens. Your immune system can then launch a massive attack very quickly before the invading bacteria or virus has a chance to multiply and gain strength .
Transfer Factors Speed the Critical Recognition Stage
Did you know the time it takes to identify an invader is the time when we come down with the symptoms of an infection? It only stands to reason the sooner an invader is recognized, the weaker the symptoms and the shorter the duration of the illness.
An immature immune response can take ten to fourteen days to fully develop. In the meantime, you will feel the effects of "fighting off" an infection. Transfer factors can "induce" or speed up that recognition phase. A 1996 issue of Biotherapy reported that transfer factors can stimulate a response in less than twenty-four hours.
Clearly, if we add more transfer factors to our immune arsenal, the transfer of information from cell to cell is enhanced. You see, transfer factors work to teach new immune cells about old threats and newly identified threats. As a result, we develop a stronger, more efficient immune system capable of fighting off constant assaults.
Transfer factors boost your immune system's ability recognize and respond to specific antigens. They are considered all-natural and work by "tutoring" your own immune system to identify infectious agents that attack your body every day.
Originally transfer factor preparations were administered by injection. Later studies showed that transfer factor was equally effective when taken orally. This means that the potency of transfer factor is not degraded by stomach acid or digestive enzymes.
Transfer Factors Shorten Immune Response Time
The unique action of transfer factors helps expedite the immune system's response to a threat. How do transfer factors do it? The following illustrate how transfer factor speeds the immune system response.
• Transfer factors download extra information into human immune memory banks.
• Transfer factors provide our T lymphocyte cells a blueprint to follow to build a swift attack, cutting down the time they take to fight infection.
• Transfer factors provide immune markers to more quickly guide T cell reactions to an invader.
• Transfer factors help the immune system widen its storehouse of antibodies, which helps to expand immune memory to better remember and deal with future infections.
A 200 mg (one capsule) of transfer factor classic formula has the potential for recognizing at least 100,000 pathogens. Aside from transfer factors ability to be specific for an individual antigen that a lymphocyte is exposed to, "transfer factors can also stimulate a multivalent response. "In this type of response, transfer factor activates lymphocytes to several strains of an organism. Cattle are naturally exposed to various bacteria and viruses and can produce transfer factor that will stimulate immunity to other related strains of bacteria and viruses that are much more pathogenic to other species. An example of this is seen in cow pox immune marker protecting against human acquired chicken pox.
NK CELLS ARE YOUR FIRST AND LAST LINE OF DEFENSE
Natural Killer (NK) Cells are a type of lethal lymphocyte
Scientists estimate that NK cells make up five to 15 percent of the total number of white blood cells that the body uses to fight infections. Those with defective or absent NK cell activity can contract a wide specturm of diseases, particularly cancers. Results from a number of clinical trials indicate that NK cells can be used to control tumor metastates. The therapeutic uses of NK cell activity will likely increase as their relationships to healthy and diseased cells becomes better known.
Natural Killer (NK) cells - NK cells were discovered in the 1970's and are a subset of large granular lymphocytes that are cytotoxic cells. They are called "natural" killers because they, unlike cytotoxic T cells, do not need to recognize a specific antigen before swinging into action. They are capable of spontaneously killing tumor or virus-infected cells. In several immuno-deficiency diseases, including AIDS, natural killer cell function is abnormal. Natural killer cells may also contribute to immuno-regulation by secreting high levels of influential lymphokines.
Natural Killer (NK) cells have no immunological memory and are independent of the adaptive immune system, NK cells make up approximately 15% of the human white blood cells. Their specific function is to kill infected and cancerous cells.
Recent research reveals that NK cells are involved in multiple effector, regulatory and developmental activities of the immune system. Research has confirmed that low NK cell activity causes one to be more susceptible to autoimmune diseases such as CFS, viral infections and the development of cancer cells.
Any statement that natural killer (NK) cells play an "important role" in human health is as casual as saying that the brain is important for bodily function. If our brain is not present and active we cannot continue "living". If our immune system is not armed and working well we will also not continue "living" for very long. NK cell activity is to the immune system, what brain activity is to the body.
Activated NK cells produce a variety of cytokines, including interferons, interlukins, TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor, hematopietic cell growth factors and other growth factors. There is substantial evidence that indicates the involvement of NK cells in the interactions of the immune system with the neuroendocrine axis. They also appear to be responsible for activities at the interface between the immune system and the reproductive and neurological systems.
NK cell activity and NK cell count are not the same. NK cells may be present in sufficient numbers, but unless they are activated they are ineffective in doing their job. Decreased NK cell activity is linked to the development and progression of many diseases. According to the Center of Disease Control, low NK cell activity is present in all illness. NK cell function appears to be a biologic marker for disease and is an important indicator for declining or improving health.
The following assertion can be made; if one is suffering from an illness, be it chronic, recurring or acute, the NK cell activity would be below normal. The restoration of NK cell activity to a high normal would be desirable, if not necessary, for recovery.
Low NK cell activity begins with stress of some type. When the body is unable to adequately adapt to the environment there is a resulting compromise of body function. Stress comes through loss of sleep, overwork, emotional encounters, lack of exercise, poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, exposure to germs etc.
Excessive stress causes many detrimental changes in the body physiology and particularly the immune system. There is research evidence that there is a relationship between Natural Killer (NK) cell activity and reaction to emotional stress. There is low NK cell activity in individuals who have difficulty in handing stress and those suffering from behavioral disorders.
Acute low NK cell activity resulting from temporary stress can be eliminated with the elimination of the stress factor. For example, if we are over-tired and under-nourished we can simply rest and eat properly for a few days and recover. However when we become continually immune compromised we start developing recurring problems which may lead into serious or chronic conditions.
NK cell activity level is lowered in times of stress and can become chronically low with chronic stress. Research shows that normal NK cell activity is essential to the recovery and maintenance of good health. One way to offset the effects of stress is to normalize NK cell function.
When the immune system is overwhelmed the communication pathways are compromised and remain compromised until re-established. If the communication networks are not restored there is little opportunity for the immune system to regain full defensive capability.
Communication in the immune system, is accomplished through the cytokine mechanism. These messenger molecules must be activated to energize the communication capability that is necessary for immune system reliability.
Conversely, immune modulation that harnesses the body's ability to regulate will have an all-encompassing immune response that is not limited to one specific area of immune response. Regulation, upward or downward, in accordance with the needs of the body will be achieved.
Rockefeller University Study
Natural killer cells are made, not born
First evidence of immune cell's activation potential in infection, tumor control Call it the immune system's version of nature versus nurture.
For years, scientists regarded natural killer cells as a blunt instrument of the body's immune defense system. Born to kill, these cells were thought to travel straight from the bone marrow, where they are manufactured, to the blood, circulating there and infiltrating the sites of early tumors or infectious agents in the body.
Now, Rockefeller University scientists, led by Christian Münz, Ph.D., have learned otherwise. Natural killer cells, Münz and his colleagues say, have to be nurtured. Their ability to destroy tumor and infected cells is not present at birth.
This new insight paves the road to changes in bone marrow and stem cell transplant procedures and will enable scientists to pursue research into activating natural killer cells to help the body fight emerging infections and tumors.
In two separate papers in the February issue of The Journal of Immunology, Münz, postdoctoral associate Guido Ferlazzo, Ph.D., and their colleagues show that natural killer cells accumulate mostly in "secondary lymphoid tissues" - the tonsils, lymph nodes and spleen - after emerging from the bone marrow. There, the natural killer cells await activation (probably after stimulation by sentinel dendritic cells) before they react in two distinct modes. In one mode, they promptly secrete cytokines, chemical messenger proteins, which modulate emerging T and B immune cell responses. In the other, they become potent killers of tumors and virus-infected cells. While natural killer cells do provide a crucial first defense against many infectious agents and tumor cells, they do so with more discrimination than raw determination.
"Natural killer cells burst forth from the the tonsils, lymph nodes and spleen, and destroy infected and cancerous cells while the immune system's T and B cells are still mobilizing," says Münz. "Without natural killer cells, threatening conditions can get a strong foothold before the adaptive immune response kicks in."
Leading oncologists treating human leukemias and lymphomas already track natural killer cell activities after bone marrow and stem cell transplants. James Young, M.D., a researcher at Rockefeller's neighboring Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's Allogenic Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplant Service, is one of them. "The emerging data on the activation of natural killer cells, their distinct functions in the body and their cellular targets, are helping to move the study of natural killer cells in transplantation and cancer from conjecture to sound hypotheses," he says.
TRANSFER ACTOR, THE ULTIMATE IMMUNE SYSTEM MODULATOR
Independent study results show transfer factors ability to increase NK Cell activity by 437% over baseline!
Our bodies have a natural defense against cancer in the form on NK, (Natural Killer) cells. They circulate through our body, seeking cells that have unusual molecules on their surface which indicate that the cell is either a tumor cell or it is infected with a virus.
When such a cell is found, the NK cell opens up and extends a tentacle to the ailing cell and engages the "Killer Activating Receptor" in preparation to destroy the cell. Another tentacle reaches out to seek another spot in the cell, the "Killer Inhibitory Receptor". If this spot is not found, the NK cell blasts the sick cell with particles that punch holes in the bad cell wall and pumps venom into it that surges in and out of the cell until it explodes into bits.
This sounds like science fiction, but this event is enacted 10,000 times a day in a healthy person's body as tumor cells are routinely destroyed when they are formed.
The destruction of the tumor cells leaves evidence in the blood serum which can be measured by means of the AMAS test. Since this cell destruction is normal, the evidence is always present in a healthy person's body. High readings of the residue (Tag 1 and Tag 2 of the AMAS test. Call 1-800-9CATEST to receive information and a free test kit) indicate that a lot of tumor killing activity is occurring in the body and further tests should be done to determine the cause.
Effect of Transfer Factor Advanced Formulas Containing E-XF Blends on Natural Killer (NK) Cell Activity
A 4Life Summary of an Independent NK Cell Study Report by
Calvin W. McCausland, Ph.D. and Emma Oganova M.D., Ph.D.
Objective: To determine the extent to which Transfer Factor E-XP blends and 4Life Transfer Factor Plus Advanced Formula increases Natural Killer (NK) cell activity above baseline.
Study Design: The blinded cytotoxicity study was designed by Dr. E. Oganova and Dr. C. McCausland. The independent testing of the coded samples was done under the direction of Academician Anatoly Vorobiev, M,D., Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMS) and the experimental work was conducted by. Dr. M.V. Kisielevsky, Dr. E.O. Khalturina, at the Russian Cancer Research Center, RAMS.
Methods: Blood was obtained from RORC donor station. A standard method of density gradient was used to isolate mononuclear cells [NK Cells], The isolated cells, 60 thousand cells per well, in 100 ml of culture medium, were introduced into each well of Costar 96 well plates. Then, portions of coded test samples [Transfer Factor E-XF blends of selected ratios, 4Life Transfer Factor Plus E-XF blend and others samples] were introduced into the wells at predetermined concentrations (wtAol.). An Intcrleukin-2 (IL-2) standard was used to compare effectiveness. The preparations were incubated in a CO2-incubator with a 5% CO2 atmosphere, 100% humidity and 370 C for 24 or 48 hours. Next 30 thousand K-562 tumor cells (crythroblastic human leukemia) were introduced into the wells. (Thus, the ratio of effector and target cells was 2:1. Each sample was tested in triplicate). The prepara tions containing both the effector (NK cells) and target cells (K562 cancer cells) along with control wells were again incubated for 18-24 hours under the same incubator conditions. An MTT (dye) solution was used to spectrophotometricly determine the number of viable cells remaining in each well. The cytotoxic index (CI) expressed in % is reported for each sample.
Results: Each of the samples significantly increased NK cell activity. The Transfer Factor E-XF Blend (Advanced Formula) resulted in greater NK cell activation (283%) than the Transfer Factor XF (204%). 4Life Transfer Factor Plus Advanced Formula increased NK cell activity by 437%. The drug IL-2 increased NK cell active by 389%. In the study activation by 4Life Transfer Factor Advanced Formula, 4Life Transfer Factor Plus Advanced Formula and IL-2 resulted in a kill rate of K562 cancer cells of 69%, 97% and 88% respectively with the 48 hour incubation period giving the greatest NK cell activation.
As previously reported in earlier publications two 4Life products, 4Life Transfer Factor Classic and 4Life Transfer Factor Plus, have been shown to significantly improve NK cell activation, 103% and 248% respectively. When the transfer factors from patented egg technology are combined with bovine transfer factors there is a synergistic activation of NK cell activity. The improved formulas, 4Lifc Transfer Factor and 4Life Transfer Factor Plus Advanced Formulas improve NK cell activation by 283% and 437% respectively.
4Life researchers and scientists in developing the Advanced Formulas were confident that the colostrum derived transfer factors when combined with the egg derived transfer factors (E-XF blends) would enhance the activity and benefit of the products, but we too were taken by surprise by the magnitude of the increase. Further research needs to be done to better understand why this synergism occurs. We are confident these results will translate into increased benefits to consumers and increased clinical effect in future studies.
This study was conducted under the direction of Dr. Anatoli Vorobiev by his colleagues of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. Using established methods of cytotoxicity testing, NK cells from humans were combined with cancer cells and divided into groups of transfer factors activated NK cells and groups of unactivated NK cells. The objective was to find the bovine and egg transfer factor blend(s) (E-XF blends) that express the greatest NK cell activation. The results enable us to identify the most potent combination that will provide the greatest health benefits.
In the control aeries of the experiments for all of the transfer factor samples tested there was no direct cytotoxic effect on tumor cells at any of the concentrations tested. When in the absence of the immune NK cells the transfer factors are combined directly with the cancer cells there is no cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells.
Results of this study clearly demonstrated that 4Life Transfer Factor Advanced Formula and 4Life Transfer Factor Plus Advanced Formula boosts NK cell activity. The independent research scientists who conducted this study found the results interesting and so exceptional as to request further information on the identity of 4Life samples so that results could be published in professional journals. Statements from researchers included the following; "The 4Life sample activated NK cell activity more than the Interieukin-2 (IL-2) drug used as the standard. Here, we now refer to your sample as the Golden Interieukin," stated Dr. Kisielevsky, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
We strongly believe that these results are certain to be reflected in improved human health resulting from significantly improved immune response. It is our hope that people everywhere will find that 4Life Transfer Factor Advanced Formula and 4Life Transfer Factor Plus Advanced Formula will provide safe broad-spectrum immune support that is unmatched in any other health supplement today.
Medical standard Interleukin-2 (IL-2) kill rate 88%
4Life Transfer Factor Plus Advanced Formula - kill rate 97%
4Life® Transfer Factor™ Now Approved By the Health Ministry of
Russia for use in Hospitals and Clinics!
First Ever Dietary Supplement to be Approved/or Use by Doctors and Hospitals in Russia
SANDY, UT (October 1, 2004) - In an unprecedented announcement in the history of network marketing, 4Life announced today that 4Life Transfer Factor products as immune modulators have been approved for use in hospitals and clinics in the Russian Federation. The results of ten separate clinical trials and two experimental studies on 4Life Transfer Factor products were combined in a Methodological Document that was approved by the Ministry of Health, which now allows doctors to recommend 4Life Transfer Factor Classic and 4Life Transfer Factor Plus® products to their patients.
First Dietary Supplement Approved for Use by Doctors and Hospitals in Russia
Commenting on this remarkable achievement, David Lisonbee, CEO of 4Life stated, "To my knowledge. this is the first time in the history of this industry that a network marketing company or any other dietary supplement company has had one of its dietary supplements approved for use in hospitals in Russia. The Russian Ministry of Health is the equivalent of the Food and Drug Administration in the United States. Doctors and scientists from Russia have been working jointly with scientists from 4Life for several years to arrive at this accomplishment. This approval establishes a new roll of dietary supplements in the Russian health care system.
Remarkable Response from Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
In another sector of research of 4Life Transfer Factor, Dr. Kisielevsky of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences stated, "The 4Life sample [Transfer Factor Advanced Formula] activated NK (natural killer) cell activity more than the Interleukin-2 (IL2) drug we used as the standard," This discovery has attracted the attention of The International Scientific and Technical Center (ISTC) of Russia.Scientists from Several Countries Join Forces for Additional Clinical Studies of Transfer Factor
The ISTC of Russia is a member of a joint international project with other health agencies of Japan, Europe and the US, The objective of the international project is to combine efforts in finding improved immunotherapies. Following the discoveries from the NK cell testing, the scientists of 4Life have been invited to join the project. 4Life Transfer Factor as an immune modulator will be farther researched in this international forum. The cost of the studies will be paid by the ISTC.
Speaking of this benchmark achievement, Dr. Calvin McCausland. VP of Research of 4Life, and Dr. Emma Oganova, 4Life Eurasia President, jointly expressed that because of the acceptance by such a reputable organization and doctors from Russia and other major countries, 4Life Transfer Factor will gain wider acceptance in the professional and private sectors as a superior immune system enhancing product. The worldwide ramifications to this acceptance are just beginning.
4Life is the world's foremost leader in the development, production and distribution of natural immune support products and was recently recognized by Inc. magazine as the fifteenth fastest growing privately-held company in America.
FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY
Because of the following statements published by Reuters last month, some people wanted to know a little more about the link between cytokines and transfer factor
"The H5N1 (case) was highly pathogenic," Mohammad Muhanna, an official at Kuwait's agriculture authority, told Reuters. Although the H5N1 virus cannot move easily between people, experts fear it could mutate into one which can and set off a pandemic in which millions might die. The virus in its current form has killed around half of the people it has infected. Scientists in Hong Kong said H5N1 apparently causes a "storm" of immune system chemicals that overwhelms the patient. The H5N1 virus caused proteins known as cytokines to rush to infected lung tissue -- evidence of a so-called cytokine storm, an immune system overreaction that can be fatal.
The study, published in the online medical journal Respiratory Research, might suggest that if H5N1 does cause a pandemic, it could disproportionately affect the young and healthy as compared with seasonal flu, which kills many elderly people but few young adults. It also raises questions about how effective drugs will be in controlling such a pandemic, experts said.
Here are some more details about TF+.
Perhaps more than you want to know.
Immunology is not a simple subject.
It is very, very complex.
It is one of those things that the more I know about it, the more I know I do not know.
The immune system has many different types of cells acting together to take care of unwanted infections and altered cells. Cytokines are the chemicals produced by these cells in order to communicate and orchestrate the attack. Just as hormones in the endocrine system can produce an effect on other cells, so cytokines can act on other immune cells, especially cells that are close by. Cytokines act as biochemical "messenger molecules". The "message" or "instruction" is sent by Signal Transduction to every cell of the immune system and others. Signal Transduction acts with a "Lock and Key" specificity. Glycoproteins are the cell wall receptors, made up of eight essential monosaccharides and comprising about 40% of the mass of the cell wall.
Cytokines have several important characteristics:
The same cytokine may be made by a number of different cells.
The same cytokine may have different effects in different circumstances. (This is called 'pleotropy')
Different cytokines may have the same activity depending on the situation ('redundancy').
Cytokines often act together and increase the effects of one another ('synergy'). They may also act as antagonists. [as IL-6 acting as a proinflammatory agent and IL-10 acting as an antiinflammatory agent]
Most cytokines have either paracrine or autocrine effects. Paracrine means they act on cells near to them or that they are actually touching. The autocrine function of IL-2 is well known because, when a T cell is stimulated to make IL-2, it stimulates itself via the IL-2 receptor to proliferate. An example of an uncommon endocrine function for cytokines is IL-1 which can cause fever by stimulating the hypothalamus.
Originally, the cytokines were named according to their function (like T cell growth factor, now called IL-2) but then the pleotropy of cytokines was observed, making function specific names confusing. After more and more cytokines were identified, and in order to avoid confusion, immunologists started naming some of the cytokines 'interleukins' (or IL for short) and numbering them as they were found. The first interleukin identified therefore was IL-1 and the most recent one is IL-16.
You will find that some cytokines are more important than others in basic immunology. Take a look at the following table. The functions of cytokines are best studied within the context of an actual immune response.
Table of cytokines
Cytokine Principle Source Principle Activities
IL-1 Macrophage T,B, cell activation;
IL-2 T cells T cell proliferation
IL-3 T cells Growth of many cell types
IL-4 T cells B cell growth/differentiation
IL-5 T cells B cell, eosinophil growth
IL-6 Macrophages B cell stimulation, inflammation
IL-7 stromal cells Early B/T cell differentiation
IL-8 Macrophages Neutrophil (PMN)attraction
IL-9 T cells mitogen
IL-10 T cells Inhibits Th1 cytokine production
IL-11 Bone marrow stroma Hematopoeisis
IL-12 APC Stimulates T, NK cells
IL-13 T cells Similar to IL-4 [B cell growth and differentiation]
IL-14 Dendritic cells,T cells B cell memory
IL-15 T cells same as IL-2 [T cell proliferation]
IFNa Most cells Anti-viral
IFNb Most cells Anti-viral
IFNg T, NK cells inflammation, activates macrophages TGFb macrophages,lymphocytes Depends on target TNFa Macrophage Inflammation; tumor killing
TNFb T cells Inflammation; tumor killing; enhances phagocytosis